Assessment of physicochemical properties of facial care emulsions containing selected fruit acids
Małgorzata Zięba, Anna Małysa, Emilia Klimaszewska, Magdalena Wykrota
Katedra Chemii, Wydział Materiałoznawstwa, Technologii i Wzornictwa, Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Humanistyczny w Radomiu
Introduction. Alpha-Hydroxy Acids (AHA) is a group of compounds that constantly attracts scientists, cosmetologists and medical doctors. They have a broad scope of application in cosmetics. Scientific research confirms their positive impact on the general skin condition. They prove to be i.a.: moisturising, lightening, smoothing, exfoliating and anti-inflammatory.
Aim. The aim of this work was to prepare face cream formulas that contain malic and citric acids and to assess their selected physicochemical properties.
Materials and methods. The study material were facial creams containing Alpha-Hydroxy-Acids, created based on literature data and the authors´ own experience. The chosen α-hydroxy acids were malic and citric. Two emulsion prototype series were created that contained acid concentration of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% weight. In order to compare the results, a basic formula without any acids was created. The impact of the concentration type of the used α-hydroxy acids on the physicochemical properties (i.e. emulsion stability and its pH, viscosity, assessment of the cream odour and sensory properties) of facial creams was assessed.
Results. Considering the pH test, citric acid seems to me stronger. Introduction of fruit acids in cream formulas decreases the dynamic viscosity compared to the basic cream. Sensory tests clearly indicate that it is more favourable to design the cosmetic emulsion formulas to contain lower malic and citric acid concentration of 0.5-1% weight.
Conclusion. The fruit acid type and concentration in facial creams has a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the final products. The test results can become grounds for practical solutions in designing facial cream formulas containing α-hydroxy acids.
Key words: facial cosmetic emulsions, AHA, malic acid, citric acid