Mechanisms of inhibition of Candida yeasts growth by cosmetics´ preservatives
Magdalena K. Biesiadecka
Zakład Genetyki, Pozawydziałowy Zamiejscowy Instytut Biotechnologii Stosowanej i Nauk Podstawowych Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego w Kolbuszowej
Preservatives are commonly used as a safeguard in food and cosmetic products which inhibit growth of microorganisms. The cosmetics contain often several inhibitory substances which target the microorganism´s metabolic pathways and disrupt their cell cycle. One of the most dangerous pathogens are species from the Candida genus cause fungal infection, mycosis and candidiasis. The most important factors in preservatives arrangement is MIC - minimal inhibitory concentration of substance and also MAC - maximum allowed concentration, law permissible amount. The preservatives abuse increase side effect occurance risk, especially for kids and alergic. In range of commonly used preservatives are parabens, p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters, which cause inhibition of nucleic acids synthesis and microorganisms transport pathway inactivation. However parabens has estrogenic activity and side effects occurs as a atopic dermatitis. Breakthroughs in novel alternatives that contain organic substances with a combination of compounds acting in synergy are being developed to enhance fluconazole activity against Candida species, in list of already tested substances are linalool (anise oil), xylitol (birth-tree), and also synergistic interacted mixtures. Another prospect for novel preservatives is exploitation of antifungal properties of silver nanoparticles, however the mechanism of their antimicrobial action is still unknown. Further investigation to discover new preservatives is crucial since the Candida genome become resistant for drugs and preservatives.
The aim of this work is to review literature pertaining to fungi inhibition mechanism and assessment of potential danger caused by species from Candida genus and propose new alternative compounds applicable to be used as preservatives for cosmetics
Key words: Candida, preservatives, cosmetics, inhibition